February 19, 1993, the National Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Regulations (Chapter 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 503 and commonly referred to as the 503 Regulations) were published in the Federal Register. The 503 regulations define treatment methods that transform bio-solids to Class “A” status; Class “A” bio-solids are free of pathogens and vector attractions. In essence, the Regulation establishes several categories in terms of stabilization, pathogenic content, beneficial reuse and disposal practices for land-application of bio-solids.
Since 1993, experience has taught that the most reliable methods are temperature methods and/or chemical. The temperature methods include direct heating, composting and thermophilic digestion. However, due to operating costs, direct heating and chemical methods are expensive. Due to release of methane, the most dangerous greenhouse gas (GHG), composting is not environmentally conscious. Chemical methods require a minimum pH of 12 utilizing an oxidizer, such as lime; this creates a very alkaline product, which is not good for land application. Temperature methods require heating to a minimum of 50 °C for a specified period of time, which is dependent on the amount of temperature above 50 °C, and are expensive. Composting, in addition to release of methane, is labor intensive and therefore costly. The most economical method involves Thermophillic Digestion (TD). Energy cost is minimal due to the thermophillic process itself. In the case of Aerobic TD (AeTD), digestion occurs exothermically, maintaining temperature once initiatied.
In the case of Anaerobic TD (AnTD), methane is produced, which can be further processed for clean energy. This methane, bio-gas, is preferred in ClearValue's Eenergy portion of the ClearValue H2 Energy Economy.
However, while all bio-solids have odor, AeTD and AnTD digested bio-solids tend to have significant odor issues. Further, the dewatering cost of Thermophilic bio-solids is much more than that of Mesophilic. This difference can make dewatering cost can render Thermophilic Systems uneconomical.
ClearValue surmounted the dewatering challenges. Further, ClearValue surmounted the challenges associated with sulfides and ammonia.
ClearValue's Nutro efficaciously produces Class “A” product per the USEPA 503 Regulations with Thermophillic digestion. Nutro product has no sulfide or ammonia odor. The Nutro product looks and smells like soil. Further, being primarily a biological process, Nutro is economical; Nutro competes very well with mesophillic systems, operating at much less cost than other Class “A” processes.
Nutro is an efficacious and efficient means to manage recycle nutrients, both maro and micro nutrients, e.g. bio-solids, eliminate pathogen transport, and provide an economical/organic fertilizer. Nutro is a modification of Mother Nature’s Process of nutrient management along with a natural, biological means, of pathogen and odor control.
ClearValue's Nutro can further be combined with ClearValue's Eenergy to produce clean electrical power, water and organic food nutrients. Negative Carbon Energy takes methane and sunlight to cleanly produce electrical power at $0.034 per kWhr.
ClearValue's Nutro combined with Eenergy provides an attractive ROI that turns the wastewater treatment operation into a profit center with sales of: organic odor free nutrient fertilizer, organic nutrient livestock feed and electrical power. In arid climates or local where water resources are limited, the water produced by Eenergy can be a significant asset.